Yves Cambefort Bibliography

Bibliography from Cambefort’s “Beetles as Religious Symbols”
Categories include Ancient Egypt, Anthropology, Folklore, Medicine, Classical Antiquity, Bible, and Western Culture.

Ancient Egypt

Ben-Tor D., The Scarab: A reflection of Ancient Egypt. The Israel Museum, 1989. [very nice small book lavishly illustrated, one of the best on the subject]

Blankenberg-van Delden (C.), The large commemorative scarabs of Amenhotep III. E.J. Brill, Leiden, 1969.

Boas G., The Hieroglyphics of Horapollo. Bollingen Series XXIII. Pantheon Books, New York, 1950. [two short chapters on scarab]

Brunton G., Qau and Badari I. British School of Archaeology in Egypt & Bernard Quaritch, London, 1927. [drawings of Middle Kingdom scarabs]

Budge E.A.W., The mummy: A handbook of Egyptian funerary archaeology. 2nd edition, 1925. Reprints: KPI, London and New York, 1987, and Dover, New York, 1990. [interesting chapters on scarabs]

Fairman H.W., Notes on the alphabetic signs employed in the hieroglyphic incriptions of the temple of Edfou. ASAÉ, 43, 1943, p. 193-310. [so-called “cryptography” and “acrophony”: alphabetic values of the scarab sign]

Fairman H.W., Introduction to the study of Ptolemaic signs and their values. BIFAO, 43, 1945, p. 51-138. [same subject]

Faulkner R.O., The ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1969. [many texts quoting the scarab and other beetles]

Giveon R., Egyptian scarabs from Western Asia from the collections of the British Museum. Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis. Series Archaeologica, 3. Universitätsverlag, Freiburg, and Vandenhoek & Ruprecht, Göttingen, 1985.

Hall H.R., Catalogue of Egyptian scarabs, etc., in the British Museum. Vol. I: Royal scarabs. British Museum, London, 1913.

Hanski I., Are the Pyramids deified dung pats? Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 3(2), 1988, p. 34-35. [the scarab is a dung beetle!]

Hart G., A dictionary of Egyptian gods and goddesses. Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, Boston and Henley, 1986. [chapter on Khepri and other gods]

Hayes W.C., The scepter of Egypt. Vol. I-II. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1990. [passages and fine illustrations on scarabs]

Hope F.W., Observations on some mummified beetles taken from the inside of a mummied Ibis. Trans. ent. Soc. London,III, 3, p. 191-193, 1842.

Hornung E., The valley of the kings: Horizon of eternity. Timken Publishers, New York, 1990. [drawings and color pictures, some on scarabs]

Kadish G.E., The scatophagous Egyptian. The Society for the Study of Egyptian Antiquities Journal, Toronto, 9 (4), 1979. [again: the scarab is a dung beetle]

Martin G.T., Scarabs, cylinders and other ancient Egyptian seals: A checklist of publications. Aris & Phillips Ltd, Warminster, 1985. [important reference]

Newberry P.E., Ancient Egyptian scarabs. London, 1905. Reprint: Ares Publishers Inc., Chicago, 1979

Petrie W.M.F., Diospolis parva. The cemeteries of Abadiyeh and Hu, 1898-9. British School of Archaelogy in Egypt & Bernard Quaritch, London, 1901. [some scarabs]

Petrie W.M.F., Scarabs and cylinders with names. British School of Archaelogy in Egypt & Bernard Quaritch, London, 1917. Reprint: Aris & Phillips Ltd, Warminster, 1978.

Petrie W.M.F., Buttons and design scarabs. British School of Archaelogy in Egypt & Bernard Quaritch, London, 1925. Reprint: Aris & Phillips Ltd, Warminster, 1982.

Petrie W.M.F., Wainwright G.A. & Gardiner A.H., Tarkhan I and Memphis V. British School of Archaelogy in Egypt & Bernard Quaritch, London, 1913. [oldest scarab artefact found in Egypt]

Petrie W.M.F., Historical scarabs. London, 1889. Reprint: Ares Publishers Inc., Chicago, 1976

Piankoff A. & Rambova N., The tomb of Ramesses VI. Bollingen Series, XL, 1. Pantheon Books, New York, 1954. [important book giving texts and illustrations of all the “underworld” texts, where the scarab often plays an important role]

Piankoff A. & Rambova N., The shrines of Tut-Ankh-Amon. Bollingen Series XL. 2. Pantheon Books, New York, 1955. Reprint in paperback: Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1977. [some interesting representations of scarabs]

Piankoff A. & Rambova N., Mythological papyri. Bollingen Series, XL, 3. Pantheon Books, New York, 1957. [the same]

Tufnell O. [with contributions by G.T. Martin and W.A. Ward], Studies on scarab seals, vol. II. Scarab seals and their contribution to history in the early second millenium B.C. Aris & Phillips Ltd, Warminster, 1984.

Ward W.A., Studies on scarab seals, vol. I. Pre-12th dynasty scarab amulets. Aris & Phillips Ltd, Warminster, 1978.

Wilkinson A., Ancient Egyptian jewelry. Methuen & Co. Ltd, London, 1971. [fine scarabs in precious stones]

Wilkinson R.H., Reading Egyptian art. Thames & Hudson, London, 1992. [paragraph on scarab]

Anthropology, Folklore, Medicine

Ayansola A.A., Edible insects of Nigeria. Y.E.S.Q., 4 (3), 1987, p. 13-15.

Benedict R., Tales of the Cochiti Indians. Bulletin 98. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology. Washington, D.C., 1931. [one tale on the “tip-beetle” (a staphylinid?)]

Bodenheimer F.S., Insects as human food. W. Junk, The Hague, 1951. [an important treatise on the subject]

Conconi J. Ramos-Elorduy de et al., Protein content of some edible insects in Mexico. J. Ethnobiol. 4, 1984, p. 61-72.

Conconi J. Ramos-Elorduy de & Pino-Moreno J.M., The utilization of insects in the empirical medicine of ancient Mexicans. J. Ethnobiol., 8(2), 1988, p. 195-202.

Duffy E.A.J., A monograph of the immature stages of Australasian timber beetles (Cerambycidae). British Museum, London, 1963. [some information about edible larvae]

Ene J.C., Insects and man in West Africa. Ibadan University Press, 1963. [edible beetles]

Funk & Wagnall’s standard dictionary of folklore, mythology and legend. New York, 1949.[a few indications]

Holt V.M., Why not eat insects? Reprint: British
Museum (Natural History), London, 1988. [a humoristic booklet on an otherwise serious subject]

Hope F.W., Observations respecting various insects which at different times have afforded food to man. Trans. ent. Soc. London, III, 2, p. 129-150, 1842.

Lewis D.J., Coleoptera of medical interest in the Sudan Republic. Proc. roy. ent. Soc., London, (A), 33 (1-3), 1958, p. 37-42.

Michener J.A., The Hokusai sketch-books: Selections from the Manga. Charles E. Tuttle Co., Rutland and Tokyo, 1958.[one plate with beetles]

Pemberton R.W., The Korean water beetle game. Pan-Pacific Entomologist, 66(2), 1990, p. 174-175.

Pharmacognostical studies on the Chine crude drugs derived from insects: Inagaki K., Nunome S. & Namba T., : 2. Banmao. Shoyakugaku Zasshi, 37(3), 1983, p. 255-261. Inagaki K., Mikage M., Nunome S. & Namba T., Id. 5. Zhe- chong and Long-shi. Ibid., 38(1), 1984,p. 70-79. Namba T. & Inagaki K., Id. 4. Qiang-Lang. Shoyakugaku Zasshi, 37(4), 1983, p. 397-404. Namba T. & Inagaki K., Id. 7. The original insects of Qicao. Ibid., 38(1), 1984, p. 118-126. [many beetles are used in traditional Chinese medicine]

Smith K.G.V., Coleoptera and other insects. In Insects and other arthropods of medical importance. British Museum (N.H.), London, 1973, p. 413-415.

Spencer B. & Gillen F.J., The native tribes of Central Australia. Macmillan & Co. Ltd., 1899. [important chapter on the “Witchetty Grub”, which was possibly a beetle larva, according to Duffy, 1963 (above)]

Taberner P.V., Aphrodisiacs: the science and the myth. Croom Helm, London, 1985. [some information on the Cantharid]

Weiss H.B., Entomological medicaments of the past. J. New York entom. Soc., 4, 1947, p. 155-168.

Classical Antiquity

Beavis I.C., Insects and other invertebrates in classical Antiquity. University of Exeter, 1988.[interesting chapters on beetles]

Davaras C., Minoan Beetle-rhyton from Prinias Sitias. BSA, 83, 1988, p. 45 sqq.

Kraay C.M. & Hirmer M., Greek coins. Harry N. Abrams, New York, 1966.[a nice color plate of the famous Ætna tetradrachm with a small figure of beetle]

Lawson J.C., Modern Greek folklore and ancient Greek religion. Reprint: University Books, New York, 1964.[a chapter on “kallikantzari”, sort of familiar devils whose origin might be some tales and legends on beetles (Greek kantharoi)]

May J.M.F., Kraay C.M. & Jenkins G.K., The coinage of Abdera (540-345 B.C.). Royal numismatic Society, Special publication No 3, London, 1966.[a fine coin depicting a scarab with his ball]


Goodenough E.R., Jewish symbols in the Greco-Roman period. Vol. 5. Fish, Bread and Wine. Bollingen Series XXXVII. Pantheon Books, New York, 1956. [interesting chapter and illustrations on basically Egyptian but also other beetles] Hogue C.L., Commentaries in cultural entomology. 3. An entomological explanation of Ezekiel’s wheels ? Ent. News, 94(3), 1983, p. 73-80.[a well-known paper: Ezekiel’s wheels might be scarab beetles, and the wheels themselves their dung balls]

Western Culture

Eisler C., Dürer’s animals. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington and London, 1991.[a paragraph on stag beetle]

Gardner M., editor. The Sacred Beetle, and other great essays in science. Oxford University Press, 1990. [based on Jean-Henri Fabre’s famous essay on biology of the scarab]

Hawkes J., The beetle leg. 1951. [a curious novel without obvious reference to beetle]

Koreny F., Albrecht Dürer and the animal and plant studies of the Renaissance. Little, Brown & Co., Boston, 1988. [important chapter on stag beetle]

Marsh R., The Beetle. 1897.[a fantastic novel]

Meadowcroft (E. LaMonte), Scarab for luck. Thomas Y. Crowell Company, New York, 1964. [a novel for children on Ancient Egypt]

Mouffet T., The Theater of Insects: or, [of] Lesser Living Creatures. London, 1658. [there is a modern reprint of this important old treatise on insects with some chapters on beetles]

Patterson R., The natural history of the insects mentioned in Shakespeare’s plays. A.K. Newman & Co., London, 1841. [interesting references]

Phillips M. Mann, The ‘Adages’ of Erasmus: A study with translations. University Press, Cambridge, 1964. [annotated translation of the adage “The beetle searches for the eagle”]

Poe E.A., The gold-bug. (many editions) [a famous novel]

Tenner E., What Wall Street can learn from the dung beetle. Money, 14 (5), May 1985, p. 206-212. [a surprising financial paper]